Count on aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy in automotive applications
With the increasing environmental pollution and energy crisis, reduce vehicle weight, reduce fuel consumption has become the important direction of the green car industry.According to related statistics, weight 10% of passenger car, the fuel consumption will be reduced 6% ~ 8%.Visible, automotive lightweighting can not only to a certain extent, ease the energy crisis, also can to contribute to the control of the pollution of the environment, therefore, automotive lightweighting this topic has very important practical significance.
The world's earliest use aluminum (aluminum plate) car is Indian.According to related records, 1896 people in India was the first to use aluminium crankcase made car.In the early 20th century, aluminum (aluminum plate) in luxury cars and racing applications, such as the ford Model T car is an aluminum (aluminum plate) body.About 30% of the total weight car body weight, so a significant role of lightweight car body.
Both inside and outside the car plate with aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy instead of steel plate can make the body weight loss of about 40% - 50%;If use aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy cover the vehicle weight loss of 10% to 15%, the weight of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy panels effect is significant.
German audi A8L limousine whole body are made of aluminum (aluminum plate) as shown in figure 1, the frame adopts the space frame structure, covering parts for aluminum (aluminum plate) sheet stamping.Quality of the aluminum (aluminum plate) body compared with steel body, reduce 30-50% and fuel consumption to reduce 5-8%.
The classification and grades of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy is relatively complex, the car on the use of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy can be divided into two major categories of casting aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy and deformation of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy.Among them, the casting of aluminium alloy use accounts for about 80%.
Casting aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy with excellent casting performance and can be used according to the purpose, the part shape, size precision, quantity, quality standard, the respect such as mechanical performance requirements and the economic benefit is choosing the best suitable alloy and casting method, mainly used in the manufacture of engine cylinder, clutch shell, steering engine, transmission, wheels, frame, brake caliper, oil cylinder and the engine components such as brake disc.
Deformation aluminium alloy including sheet, foil, extrusion, forging, etc., mainly used in the manufacture of doors, in the car trunk commonly body panels, such as bumper, hood, the wheel spokes, wheel cover, brake assembly confinement, body frame, seat, such as platform floor structure and decoration, such as the dashboard.
Below, on aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy in automotive introduces the application of several major parts:
A, aluminum (aluminum plate) cylinder block, cylinder head
Engine cylinder block, cylinder head requirements of material good thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance, aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy can meet the performance requirements, therefore a lot of automobile engine cylinder block, cylinder head use whole aluminum (aluminum plate) type more.Such as general motors using aluminum (aluminum plate) steel bushing, French car aluminum (aluminum plate) cylinder jacket has amounted to 100%, 45% aluminum (aluminum plate) cylinder.aluminum (aluminum plate) castings used in engine and engine piston, piston rings, connecting rod, etc.The adoption of the piston, connecting rod, cast aluminum (aluminum plate) parts, reduce the weight, so as to reduce the vibration of the engine, reduces the noise, the engine fuel consumption rate drop, very accord with the development trend of automobile.
In 2012, byd 317 qa, it adopts the aluminum (aluminum plate) engine, in to ensure that the engine performance at the same time, more can reduce fuel consumption
Second, the hood
Hood is the key component of pedestrian head injuries, in order to ensure the safety of pedestrians in emergency on the hood of the performance of the materials have higher requirements.The energy absorption ability demanding, weak strength and other properties.
aluminum (aluminum plate) plate can be twice the plate absorption, it helps to reduce car on pedestrian head injuries in the process of collision, played a strong protection for pedestrians.Now, a lot of high-end car all adopt the aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy, and aluminum (aluminum plate) SUV have emerged, all of them, and use of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy hood relative is more widely.
aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy hood has gradually become the development trend of auto industry, in the high-end car after using, also further reflected in low - and the car.Used on the Mazda RX - 8 sports car to protect pedestrians head conical shock proof of the aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy hood, the engine cover not only the use of pedestrian head impact damage can be greatly reduced, also reduce the vehicle weight, more important is the design concept is the marketing of a major bright spot.
Three, aluminum (aluminum plate) body
The essence of the auto industry is the production of automobile body, the body made almost takes up 60% of the total amount of investment in an automobile company.According to statistics, automotive body quality accounted for about 30% of the total quality, reduce the weight of the body of the vehicle lightweighting is critical.
The entire global auto industry in 2006 used for automobile body made of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy total demand reached 2.05 million tons, the main aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy used in car body are 2000, 5000, 6000 and 7000.Now almost all of the world's big carmakers are scrambling to body parts or the whole aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy aluminum (aluminum plate) body, and recently has achieved significant results.
For the first time in 2003, the jaguar XJ sixth generation using aluminum (aluminum plate) body, officially opened a new era of global CheTan lightweight, highly efficient.Jaguar XJ seventh generation was born in 2009, it is based on the second generation of aviation technology - extra Lightweight Architecture (Premium Lightweight Architecture, PLA), with the application of aluminum (aluminum plate) and magnesium alloy improve degree of stiffness and Lightweight car body, and become the "flying" the most of his competitors at the same level of player.
New land rover evoque also USES the structure of the whole aluminum (aluminum plate) body, as shown in figure 5, the use of aluminum (aluminum plate) alloy materials have just replace all the car body, the car body of the space shuttle riveting adopted engineering standards, compared with the previous white body, all aluminum (aluminum plate) white body weight is about 180 kg, weight loss rate is as high as 39%, lightweight technology is used in great quantities in the vehicle, weight of 420 kg.